By James Olcese (auth.), Amal K. Mukhopadhyay Ph.D., Mohan K. Raizada Ph.D. (eds.)

Recent growth in recombinant DNA know-how and the supply of a couple of nonpeptide subtype-specific receptor antagonists and of particular antibodies to parts of prorenin-renin-angiotensin approach (PRAS) have resulted in speedy advances within the lower than­ status of the multifaceted function of angiotensin II, classically referred to as a peptide hormone of cardiovascular homeostasis. amassing facts sug­ accountable for the legislation gests that, as well as its function in salt and water metabolism, PRAS may possibly keep watch over different physiological features together with neurosecretion, mobile proliferation, hypertrophy and/or differentiation, angiogenesis and gonadal functionality. whilst, it's changing into glaring that the really expert features of endocrine glands are usually not in basic terms regulated by way of trophic hormones but in addition by way of in the community produced paracrine/autocrine elements. the concept that is rising that tissue PRAS is one such in the neighborhood lively regulatory procedure. With a growing number of reproductive and endocrine organs being extra to the record of tissues that comprise a neighborhood tissue PRAS, questions are being raised by means of the reproductive biologists and endocrinologists as to the position of such platforms within the tissues in their curiosity. nevertheless, the cardiovascular and renovascular physiologists are thinking about concerning the relevance of PRAS in numerous peripheral tissues in comparison to these of the classical cardiovascular organs. It seemed, for that reason, that the time used to be ripe for a gathering to think about a merger of curiosity in those very important yet heretofore targeted parts of physiology.

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This rhythm is most likely controlled by oxytocin release from paraventricular neurons that project to the median eminence. It has been suggested that oxytocin may enhance Prl secretion (beside its direct pituitary effect) by increasing opiate inhibition of DA release (Horvath et ai, 1992) Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulatory Agents Controlling PIF and PRF Release Serotonin (5-HT). Serotonin has a clear and major stimulatory effect on Prl surges although its role in the control of basal Prl release appears minor.

Kaufman, S. The dipsogenic activity of prolactin in male and female rats. ) 310:435-444, 1981. , Akema, T. and Yoshida, K. Effects of preoptic injections of gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and PHI on the secretion of luteinizing honnone and prolactin in ovariectomized oestrogen-primed rats. Brain Res 410:315-322, 1987. W. w. Effect of hypophysectomy and subsequent prolactin administration on hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 116:485-491, 1985.

3. 1. Developmental Aspects The Leydig cells, responsible for testicular steroidogenesis, appear in the testis during the embryonic development. They originate from a population of undifferentiated interstitial mesenchymal cells, starting on fetal days 15-16 in the rat and on week 8 of gestation in the human (for further details, see Huhtaniemi and Pelliniemi, 1992). g. George and Wilson, 1994). Fetal testicular endocrine activity continues until the neonatal period, which is followed, depending on the species, by a long prepubertal quiescence (human), or by a temporary decline (rodents) (Figure 1).

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