By Andrew Cottey
Based on a huge foreign learn undertaking undertaken by way of The Institute for East West experiences, this publication presents the 1st complete research of an incredible, yet little explored, characteristic of post-Cold battle Europe: the emergence of subregional cooperation in components reminiscent of the Barents, the Baltic Sea, relevant Europe and the Black Sea. It analyses the function of subregional cooperation within the new Europe, presents distinct case reports of the hot subregional teams and examines their family with NATO and the eu Union.
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Additional info for Subregional Cooperation in the New Europe: Building Security, Prosperity and Solidarity from the Barents to the Black Sea
As observed by Castberg, Stokke and Ostreng, the states of the subregion have been embedded in different spheres of interaction: Norway with its strong 'desire to avoid dealing with Russia without being backed up by its Western allies and its orientation towards Britain and the United States; Sweden, economically tuned to Germany and politically blending a non-aligned position with a Western orientation; Finland, combining its special relations with the Soviet Union with quite strong ties to the West; and of course, Russia, which until the demise of the Cold War strove to build a competing political and economic frame of interaction within the socialist world.
If this hybridity is exploited by local actors, for example by establishing direct contacts with Brussels in regard to the allocation of EU funds for regional development purposes, the Barents project will assume features of a 'state by-passing' arrangement. It would thereby be in line with more general European developments, with influence flowing away from states, both upwards and downwards. There are no strong indications that this trend is really happening in the context of the BEAC to date, but structurally the preconditions for it to happen are already present far more clearly than in most other European subregional arrangements.
38 A variety of problematic issues are addressed in the context of the normal, civilian agenda. There is no hiding the fact that some of these issues are difficult to resolve, but efforts to address them can take place without reverting to a framework pertaining to military preparedness, strict territorial delineations or the understanding that the underlying issue consists of averting the danger of war between the states concerned. Furthermore, keeping 'hard' security outside the Barents framework allows a more balanced situation to emerge between Russia, as a major power, and the three small Nordic countries.