By Paul H. Harvey, Andrew J. Leigh Brown, John Maynard Smith, Sean Nee

Contemporary advances in molecular genetics make the sequencing of genes a simple workout. Comparisons of sequenced genes from varied contributors of a species, or from diverse species, enable the development of kinfolk bushes or evolutionary bushes which demonstrate genetic relationships. This quantity indicates for the 1st time how these bushes, or phylogenies, can be utilized to reply to questions about inhabitants dynamics, epidemiology, improvement, biodiversity, conservation, and the evolution of genetic platforms. The innovations for figuring out what those new bushes can let us know come jointly in a unified framework in order that a standard set of equipment should be utilized, no matter what sector of biology pursuits the researcher.

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Not Billions 4/16/08 3:49:02 PM Potassium-40 → Calcium-40 + Beta (β) Many reactions such as this are studied in the field of nuclear physics. Table 2-1 lists the popular radioactive isotopes used in the dating technique. Most of the half-lives given in the table are in the billion-year range. These numbers, while not exact, are relatively accurate. The numerical value of nuclear half-life is a measure of the stability of a nucleus. Half-life is related to radioisotope dating but is a distinct number from the calculated ages of rock samples.

The carbon-14 results from fossil materials cannot pin down biblical dates more precisely, because of the uncertainty in the actual amount of C-14 existing in the preFlood world. indd 59 Carbon-14 Dating 59 4/16/08 3:49:17 PM There is another complementary creationist explanation for the presence of carbon-14 in earth materials. Some of the measured C-14 may be primordial, having been present in the earth from the beginning of time. In the young-earth view, the creation took place just a few thousand years ago.

The raw, uncut diamonds analyzed by RATE have a rounded, glassy appearance. They are of industrial grade rather than gem quality, and are not excessively expensive. The carbon-14 content measured for the 12 RATE diamonds is shown in Table 3-3. Similar to the earlier results for coal, all 12 diamond samples have detectable carbon-14 content, once again measured in percent modern carbon, pMC. 09 percent that of modern carbon, about onethird that found in coal. As far as we can determine, this RATE research marks the first time that carbon-14 measurements have been made on diamond.

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