By Jonathan B. Losos

Adaptive radiation, which ends up while a unmarried ancestral species provides upward thrust to many descendants, each one tailored to another a part of the surroundings, is almost certainly the only most vital resource of organic range within the dwelling international. one of many best-studied examples contains Caribbean Anolis lizards. With approximately four hundred species, Anolis has performed a huge position within the improvement of ecological idea and has turn into a version process exemplifying the mixing of ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral reports to appreciate evolutionary diversification. This significant paintings, written via one of many best-known investigators of Anolis, reviews and synthesizes an enormous literature. Jonathan B. Losos illustrates how varied clinical ways to the questions of model and diversification may be built-in and examines evolutionary and ecological questions of curiosity to a wide diversity of biologists.

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Extra resources for Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles (Organisms and Environments)

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Photo courtesy of Niranjan Sant. FIGURE C SUBDIGITAL TOEPADS Almost all anoles have expanded toepads underlying the digits on their fore- and hindlimbs. These pads are composed of a number of laterally expanded scales, termed lamellae (Fig. 4a,b). Each lamella is attached at its front (proximal to the body) end, but is free at the rear. Lamellae are covered with millions of microscopic hairlike structures termed setae which can approach 30 ␮m in length; these setae can end in a hook or a spatula-like structure usually less than 1 ␮m in width, or in an intermediate shape (Fig.

1999; Fleishman and Persons, 2001). 26 Most lizards lay one to several large clutches of eggs a year. Anoles, however, do not necessarily have lower reproductive output. 27 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND SPECIES DIVERSITY Anoles range throughout the northern half of South America, through Central America and into tropical Mexico (Fig. 7). Anolis carolinensis occurs in North America as far north as North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas and as far west as eastern Texas. 28 The anoles of the Caribbean are well known; what is not so well known is that anoles also occur on 26.

2003, 2004), and this trend may increase greatly in the near future (a point upon which I expand in Chapter 14). Although the lion’s share of research has been conducted in the West Indies, more species actually occur on the mainland (approximately 210 versus 151). 29. , Cocos, Gorgona, Malpelo. 30. A. sagrei has also been spotted in a lawyer’s office in Boston and on an airplane out of Denver, among other places. , 2004). 20 • MEET THE ANOLES! Within the West Indies, the number of species on an island is roughly related to island area (discussed at greater length in Chapter 4).

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