By D.C. Wright

A desirable perception into why polymer items fail, and the way we will be able to study from the blunders of the earlier. This e-book describes some of the mechanisms of polymer degradation, and illustrates every one failure mechanism with a couple of case reports. This e-book was once written with the aid of the united kingdom division of alternate and undefined. it's meant to elevate wisdom of the factors and results of polymer product mess ups, so as to lessen the longer term incidences of such disasters, and their huge expenses to undefined.

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Additional info for Failure of Plastics and Rubber Products Causes Effects and Case Studies Involving Degradation

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5 The ductile to brittle transition time (type I to type II failure) for HDPE as a function of temperature 43 Failure of Plastics and Rubber Products stresses are maximum. The product specifier had assumed that a material with a UL temperature/MCUT of 60 °C would not embrittle within 50 years at ambient temperature. g. chlorinated water) will further accelerate the transition from ductile to brittle failure. This is discussed in the following section. 6 The oxidising medium The molecular oxygen (O2) in air or dissolved in water has a modest oxidation potential compared with oxygen in some other states.

Tensile stresses can also be expected to increase oxygen diffusion rates via volume dilation. 4. Failures up to the first transition (type I) are determined solely by the viscoelastic characteristics of the material (the dependence of yield strength on time and temperature). Type I failures exhibit no degradation and are independent of the oxidising medium or the efficacy of stabilising additives. Failures in the longer term and after the second transition (type III) are virtually independent of stress.

However at lower stresses, a critical crack length has time to develop prior to yielding and type II brittle fracture is the mode of failure. This occurs in air more rapidly than in a vacuum. Oriented PP fibres at 130 °C fail after 100,000 s in vacuum and 10,000 s in air at a stress of 30 MPa [17]. It must be assumed that the very high surface to volume ratio of crazed material promotes rapid oxygen absorption within the craze fibrils, leading to accelerated and highly localised thermo-oxidative degradation, premature fibril rupture, increased crack growth rates, and reduced creep rupture time.

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