By Gita Steiner-Khamsi, Ines Stolpe (auth.)

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The explanation for this is simple: Ts. Sharkhüü (1965) has shown that the administrative schools established by the Manchurians were not intended for the general public, serving instead as training grounds for scribes (bicheech) and civil servants (tüshmel) who would work for the Manchurian state. The instructional content was therefore focused primarily on conveying knowledge of writing and law. This was thus clearly about the transfer of a typical colonial tradition of installing natives in lower-level administrative positions in the occupied areas.

The new positive features in the second educational import era include— in addition to more extensive language instruction—the impulse for increased translation activity and textbook development. Because the schools for scribes and civil servants could not rely on imported textbooks for instruction, Mongolian teachers and writers developed a selection of primers and story books. In the nineteenth century in particular, many textbooks for history, geography, and translation were developed, which were used well into the next century (Baasanjav 1999).

The third prerequisite refers to the financial model used to pay for this type of education. In true colonial style, the student’s received financial support from the local community (Shagdar 2000). The new positive features in the second educational import era include— in addition to more extensive language instruction—the impulse for increased translation activity and textbook development. Because the schools for scribes and civil servants could not rely on imported textbooks for instruction, Mongolian teachers and writers developed a selection of primers and story books.

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