By Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Roger D. Kamm
The aim of this booklet is to give a whole spectrum of perspectives on present techniques to modeling mobilephone mechanics. partly, this range of critiques stems from the various backgrounds of these who've contributed to the sector. The authors of this booklet come from the biophysics, bioengineering, and actual chemistry groups, and every joins the dialogue with their very own distinctive viewpoint on organic platforms. as a result, the ways diversity from finite point equipment as widely used in continuum mechanics, to types of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer community, to versions of glassy fabrics and gels. experiences mirror either the static, immediate nature of the constitution in addition to its dynamic nature as a result of polymerization and the entire array of organic tactics. it's not going unmarried, unifying strategy will evolve from this variety, partly as a result of the complexity of the phenomena underlying the mechanical homes of the phone. it really is our desire, although, greater appreciation of a number of the views will bring about a extra hugely coordinated method of those crucial difficulties, and may facilitate discussions between people with differing perspectives.
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Additional resources for Cytoskeletal Mechanics. Models and Measurements
Instrument, displacements less than 100 nm can be resolved corresponding to forces less than 10 nN. A typical force vs. displacement curve from this instrument as shown in Fig. 2-2 reveals a significant degree of both elasticity and unrecoverable deformation from plasticity or flow of the cytoplasm. Such measurements have demonstrated both a significant elastic response as well as a plastic deformation of the cell, and the time course and magnitudes of these processes can be probed by varying the rate at which the forces are applied.
Experimental study of cell response to mechanical forces. Cells are deposited on the stage of an inverted microscope equipped with a video camera. The video output is connected to a digitizer mounted on a desk computer. Cells are aspirated into micropipettes connected to a syringe mounted on a syringe holder. Pressure is monitored with a sensor connected to the computer. Pressure and time values are superimposed on live cell images before recording on videotapes for delayed analysis. , 2000. Fig.
2000). Bone and the osteocytes within it respond to similarly large stresses (Ehrlich and Lanyon, 2002), although the stress to which a cell imbedded within the bone matrix is directly exposed is not always clear. , 1981), and neutrophils activate in response to similar or even smaller shear stresses (Fukuda and Schmid-Schonbein, 2003). Not only the magnitude but the geometry and time course of mechanical perturbations are critical to elicit specific cellular effects. Some tissues like tendons or skeletal muscle experience or generate mainly uniaxial forces and deformations, while others, such as the cells lining blood vessels, normally experience shear stresses due to fluid flow.