By Gordon G.; Spinks Geoffrey M.; Kane-Maguire, Leon A. P.; Teasdale, Pe ? Wallace

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When this polymer is reduced, the large anion cannot leave the polymer, so cations from the surrounding electrolyte are incorporated into the polymer to balance the charge of the polyanion. Subsequent oxidation of this polymer releases the cation species back into the surrounding electrolyte. 5. 82 In other applications the release can also be automatically stimulated by a change in the environment. For example, it is known that the galvanic coupling of conducting polymer coatings (such as polyaniline) to metals such as steel and aluminum causes a reduction of the polymer from the emeraldine salt state to the leucoemeraldine base state, and this process involves the release of the dopant ion into the surrounding electrolyte.

59 Lack of a convenient user interface is the single biggest barrier to blind people accessing information in the Internet age. The future of Braille lies in a low-cost refreshable surface, or screen, where the individual Braille dots are raised and lowered electronically by low-voltage/low-power actuator systems, allowing changing messages or decision options to be displayed. We envisage the screen as a device consisting of multiple rows of a new type of Braille cell. The pins making up each Braille cell of the screen are driven electronically by polymer actuators in place of the piezoelectric mechanisms of existing technology.

This lag is due to the finite time required for the chemical processes causing the resistance change to occur. 5 is an oversimplification. Although anions are expelled, it is not a simple redox process. Rather, anions are continuously expelled, starting at anodic potentials, suggesting the presence of multiple redox sites, all with different standard potential (E°) values. When the polymer is grown containing a different counterion, the behavior observed can be markedly different. 0 E-Volt vs. 0 E-Volt vs.

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