By Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas Allkemper (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Prof. James F. M. Meaney, Dr. Falko A. Stichnoth (eds.)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has turn into the best cross-sectional imaging technique in medical perform. non-stop technical advancements have considerably broadened the scope of functions. at this time, MR imaging is not just crucial diagnostic method in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology, yet has additionally develop into a useful diagnostic device for stomach, pelvic, cardiac, breast and vascular imaging. This booklet deals functional directions for appearing effective and inexpensive MRI examinations in day-by-day perform. The underlying suggestion is that, by means of adopting a realistic protocol-based procedure, the work-flow in a MRI unit may be streamlined and optimized.
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Extra info for Clinical MR Imaging
2 W/kg for head exposure • Up to 10 W/kg for local SAR within the head/trunk region • Up to 20 W/kg for local SAR values within the extremities • The increase in body core temperature is not to exceed 1°C. Values are averaged over a 6-min time frame. For a period of 10 s, the averaged SAR is permitted to exceed up to three times the level of the current mode. These levels are valid for a bore temperature of up to 77°F. 4°F. The software on the MR system will calculate and compare all possible above-mentioned limits for the selected mode and will indicate the most critical value.
1 Sequence Dependent Imaging established solution to this problem is to minimize Protocol Parameters the number of necessary repetitions by filling k-space with multiple phase-encoded echoes. The number of Sequence Type SE: T1-Weighting: echoes used following an excitation is called ETL. Focus Central Nervous System The reduction in measurement time is proportional to the number of phase-encoded echoes. As the number The signal generating transverse magnetization is pro- of echoes increase the time needed to acquire the data portional to the longitudinal magnetization at the time for a single slice, this method is mainly suitable of the (90°) excitation pulse, and for SE, the course of for applications that utilize a long TR (PD- or the longitudinal magnetization is Mz = M0 ⋅ (1− e−T T ), T2-weighting).
5-T system is approximately 150 ms when used in conjunction with a conventional imaging sequence. Used in conjunction with faster imaging techniques, the inversion time may have to be prolonged to 170 ms. A disadvantage of the STIR technique is that the inversion pulse affects all tissues, often reducing the SNR dramatically. That disadvantage can be compensated utilizing a spectral inversion (SPIR) or a spectral adiabatic inversion (SPAIR). As STIR will diminish the signal from tissue with a short T1 relaxation time (like fat), it is advised not to use STIR techniques after contrast administration, since the majority of contrast agents used in MR are T1-shortening agents.