By Alexander Apelblat

This monograph is dedicated to diversified elements linked to citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and natural strategies. It comprises information regarding houses, incidence and technological purposes of citric acid and inorganic citrates. section equilibria - melting, freezing, boiling, vapour pressures, solubilities of citric acid in water, natural solvents and ternary structures are offered, correlated, and analyzed. Dynamic houses - viscosities, diffusion coefficients, electric conductivities and floor tensions are tested. Mathematical representations of citric acid dissociation, in electrolyte recommendations and in buffers are mentioned. Citric acid chemistry - syntheses of citric acid, neutralization, degradation, oxidation, esterification, formation of anhydrides, amides and citrate-based siderophores is reviewed.

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19) kJ mol−1 [90]. Kochergina et al. [61] also calorimetrically measured the molar enthalpies of solution of citric acid in water and KOH dilute solutions. 36 kJ mol−1. 5 Vapour Pressures of Water Over Saturated Solutions of Citric Acid Besides solubilities, the knowledge of vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of citric acid is an essential factor in its production and therefore these vapour pressures were measured a number of times. However, contrary to solubilities, the agreement between Marshall [7], Oechler [9], Williams et al.

However, these indicative criteria it is difficult to apply directly because the partial molar volumes of solutes at infinite dilution V20 (T ) = V2 (m → 0; T ) are usually not specially accurate. They are determined at each temperature T, by an extrapolation of experimental densities in very dilute solutions, m → 0, and evidently their second derivatives with regard to temperature are expected to be even less accurate. In order to overcome this difficulty, it was proposed by the author to change these criteria and apply them for finite, low concentrations of solute in water.

7 The apparent number of particles in solution as a function of concentration of citric acid. 12) expresses the total number of particles in the solution, νi are stoichiometric coefficients and mi are the molalities of corresponding species. In the considered range of concentrations citric acid can essentially be treated as the monobasic weak acid. 14) m (1 + a ) where α denotes the degree of dissociation of citric acid and i = 1 + α is known as the van’t Hoff factor. From the knowledge of the equilibrium constant for the primary step of dissociation K1( T), it is possible to calculate α values.

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