By G. Gambolati, G. Giunta, M. Putti, P. Teatini, L. Tomasi, I. Betti, M. Morelli (auth.), Giuseppe Gambolati (eds.)
The higher Adriatic Sea basin contains a really precarious coastal atmosphere topic to non-stop alterations which end up considerable not just over the geological scale but in addition in old and sleek occasions. based on a few Authors the Venice Lagoon was once shaped 2000-3000 years in the past, and different lagoons (e. g. the Grado Lagoon within the northernmost a part of the Adriatic) are much more contemporary. as well as lagoons, the higher Adriatic coastal zone comprises salt and fresh-water marshes and reclaimed land separated through numerous watercourses originating from the Alpine and Apennine levels with a floor elevation no longer exceeding in lots of locations 2 m above the suggest sea l. evel (msl). an important fraction of this lowland is already now lower than msl due to common and anthropogenic land subsidence, land reclamation and sea point upward thrust happened over the past century. average land subsidence remains to be below means due to deep downward tec tonic circulation and consolidation of soils deposited within the latest time. An thropogenic subsidence is basically because of groundwater pumping for agricultural, business, civil, and vacationer use, and to fuel withdrawal from loads of gasoline fields scattered throughout the top Adriatic basin, and will nonetheless proceed, al even though at a discounted expense, within the future years. even as msl is anticipated to upward thrust within the subsequent century as a result of international weather swap, often due to the greenhouse effect.
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Additional info for CENAS: Coastline Evolution of the Upper Adriatic Sea due to Sea Level Rise and Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence
In the investigated areas of the Romagna coast, the general direction of the net sediment transport along the coast is towards north. 4 COASTAL EVOLUTION OF THE UPPER ADRIATIC SEA North South Net Ravenna 1600 E ~ >. I I • , 8 I 4 \ • 800 I 0- \ \ \ I• "I") E -800 '/\ ... - 0 E -4 .. : -8 - 1600 1500 1000 500 0 [m] North South Net >. 0 . 0 . S 8 500 I, 4 I , 1\ 0 E -500 0 E -4 - 1000 0 ::: i 1500 1000 [m] 500 North South Net E ~ >. Hnns (m) N Cesenatico 1000 E "- 23 -8 2000 Rimini 3000 8 1500 4 ------------_ ...
In particular GRASS has been used through the following steps: - construction of the DEM at the selected times (at present, at 2050 and 2100) by decreasing the present ground elevation by the amount of natural and anthropic land subsidence predicted by the corresponding models; - evaluation of the mean sea level rise at the same times and with the selected return periods (1, 10 and 100 years) by combining the eustatic rise caused by climate variation with the simulated storm effects; - determination of the expected coastline profile at a given time and with a specified return period as the intersection between the ground level at that time and the mean sea level at the same time and with the selected return period.
The older coastlines show well developed river deltas, extending several hundreds of meters into the sea, which is a common picture under fluvial dominated conditions. The modern coastline shapes however, show a smooth shape without a distinct protuberance at the river mouth as a result of a marine dominated environment. The Romagna coast is highly affected by human interventions through the years. Many efforts were made in order to diminish the coastal erosion by the establishment of coastal structures and the artificial suppletion of sand  (beach nourishments) .