By Carol L. Boggs, Ward B. Watt, Paul R. Ehrlich

В этой книги лучшие мировые эксперты обобщили современные знания о бабочках, чтобы показать, как исследование тих удивительных созданий может привести к более глубокому пониманию экологических и эволюционных процессов в целом. 26 глав структурированы по широким функциональным областям, характеризуя использование бабочек в исследованиях поведения, экологии, генетики, эволюции, систематики и охраны природы. Учитывая современный кризис биоразнообразия, эта книга показывает, как результаты, полученные в исследованиях бабочек, помогают понять быстрые и сильные изменения современного мира. В частности, наблюдаются сдвиги географического распространения некоторых видов бабочек в ответ на глобальное потепление, что является ранним свидетельством климатических изменений.
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The mesopredator release has not yet been widely tested on coral reefs, but increased apex predator biomass inside one Bahamian reserve was associated with reduced mesopredator biomass and increased biomass of some (but not all) small fishes (Lamb & Johnson, 2010), which is consistent with a cascading effect of mesopredator release on small reef fishes. Our aim here is simply to point out that, should mesopredator release occur, it is likely to act synergistically with ongoing losses of architectural complexity to steadily intensify densitydependent predation on small fishes.

Stochastic variability in demographic parameters may generate both over- (pure birth process) and under-dispersion (pure death process), whereas stochasticity in environmental processes creates over-dispersion. Biases in ectoparasite infestation Any field zoologist knows that some host species are characterized by higher parasite abundance than other species. Consequently, a level of parasite abundance can be determined not only by parasite, but also by host identity. In other words, one may ask whether parasite abundance can be seen also as a property of the host.

Samhouri, J. , & Vance, R. R. (2008a). Spatial density dependence scales up but does not produce temporal density dependence in a coral reef fish. Ecology, 89, 2980–2985. Forrester, G. , Steele, M. , Samhouri, J. , & Vance, R. R. (2008b). Settling larvae of a small coral-reef fish discriminate reef features at large, but not small, spatial scales. Limnology and Oceanography, 53, 1956–1962. Fretwell, S. , & Lucas, H. L. (1969). On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds.

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