By Stephen Wilkinson
Bodies on the market: Ethics and Exploitation within the Human physique exchange explores the philosophical and functional concerns raised via actions reminiscent of surrogacy and organ trafficking. Stephen Wilkinson asks what's it that makes a few advertisement makes use of of the physique debatable, even if the arguments opposed to advertisement exploitation get up, and no matter if laws outlawing such practices is basically justified.
In half One Wilkinson explains and analyses a number of the notoriously slippery strategies utilized in the physique commodification debate, together with exploitation, damage and consent. partly he makes a speciality of 3 arguable matters (the trading of human kidneys, advertisement surrogacy, and DNA patenting) outlining modern law and investigating either the ethical matters and the arguments for felony prohibition.
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Extra info for Bodies for Sale: Ethics and Exploitation in the Human Body Trade
Now, of course often it’s the case that when people have their ‘subjectivity denied’ and/or their rights to bodily integrity ignored, it’s because someone else is using them as a mere instrument. But this isn’t the only reason why these kinds of objectification can occur. At this point, it’s helpful to draw a (probably not very sharp) distinction, within objectification, between regarding a person as a useful object and regarding a person as a useless object. Most discussions of objectification focus on people who are wrongfully used and hence on those who are, in one way or another, viewed as useful.
Exploiting a person’s attributes is not the same as exploiting a person. Each of us can sometimes exploit some of our own attributes – a runner her stamina, a boxer his reach, etc. 42 This section aims to address two questions. The first is simply: what exactly is use? More specifically, what exactly is the kind of use involved in exploitation? The second relates to the distinction drawn by Goodin 21 CONCEPTS above: how does exploiting or using a person relate to exploiting or using a person’s attributes?
Are their causes mainly biological or are they ‘social constructs’? And to what extent do these attitudes vary according to culture, ethnicity, gender, sex, etc.? There’s also a structural question: is there anything about the nature of certain kinds of use that makes them more likely to displace respect for personhood? 7 Using persons, contexts, and relationships [I]nstrumentalization does not seem problematic in all contexts. If I am lying around with my lover on the bed, and use his stomach as a pillow there seems to be nothing at all baneful about this, provided that I do so with his consent (or, if he is asleep, with a 40 O B J E C T I F I C AT I O N reasonable belief that he would not mind), and without causing him pain, provided, as well, that I do so in the context of a relationship in which he is generally treated as more than a pillow.