By Yang Xia
This precise e-book describes the newest info within the basic knowing of the biophysics and biochemistry of articular cartilage utilizing the cutting-edge practices in NMR and MRI. this is often the 1st ebook of its variety, written by means of physicists and chemists in this vital tissue, whose degradation contributes to osteoarthritis and comparable joint illnesses. Connecting the basic technology with the scientific imaging purposes, the specialists Editors offer an authoritative addition to the literature.
Ideal for training actual scientists and radiologists with an curiosity within the primary technology in addition to tool brands and scientific researchers operating with articular cartilage
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Extra resources for Biophysics and biochemistry of cartilage by nmr and mri
As the tissue compresses, water is rapidly forced out of the ECM. Tissue volume and the molecular volume of aggrecan domains decrease, while the FCD and the concentration of counter-ion and co-ion species increase, causing increasing intermolecular repulsion and interstitial swelling stress. 6b), a displacement (strain) is applied to the cartilage and maintained at a constant value. As the tissue is compressed, water is forced out from the tissue. The reduction of water content leads to a time-dependent decrease in the interstitial stress as the tissue relaxes.
In the pericellular matrix of each chondrocyte, the concentration of proteoglycan can be two-fold higher than that in the matrix distant from the cells. These proteoglycan macromolecules are rich in polysaccharide side-chains with negatively charged carboxyl and sulfate groups that give articular cartilage a hydrophilic nature. The spatial distribution of GAGs in cartilage can be visualized by using a number of histochemical assays (as well as MRI;85 see chapter 6). 69 This assay is sensitive to interference from proteoglycan core proteins and nonGAG polyanions such as DNA and HA.
21,22 Following the proliferation layer, cells pass through a transition layer (prehypertrophic layer), in which they lose their proliferative ability and gradually increase in size due to swelling. Finally, these cells become hypertrophic and undergo major phenotypic changes,23 following a cascade of events including ECM mineralization, angiogenesis, and cellular apoptosis,20 which eventually lead to the formation of bone. 2 Mature Chondrocytes in Cartilage Mature chondrocytes are the only cell type present in adult articular cartilage.