By G. A. Evdokimova (auth.), David B. Peakall, Colin H. Walker, Pawel Migula (eds.)

Many components of jap Europe were polluted to an volume unknown within the West. 4 such websites - Kola Peninsula, northern Bohemia, top Vistula Basin, and Katowice - were pointed out and unique money owed of the pollutants at those websites are given. the present prestige of using biomarkers in chance evaluate is given through numerous scientists from NATO international locations. 4 operating teams, comprising scientists engaged on the polluted websites and western scientists with services in biomarkers, research using biomarkers to evaluate the environmental future health of every of those components and make tips about the long run path of remedial motion in those areas.

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Additional resources for Biomarkers: A Pragmatic Basis for Remediation of Severe Pollution in Eastern Europe

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38 TABLE 4. 0 3200 thousand tons of solid waste were generated in the Krak6w voivodship in 1996. Industrial waste amounted to 90% of this figure, the remaining 10% being municipal and sanitary (hospital) waste. In recent years industrial and municipal waste has become a major problem, its volume is increasing continually. Waste is disposed in several controlled dumps, and often in an uncontrolled manner posing threats to health and the environment. The surface water quality in Krak6w region is very poor.

Kg -I Ashes, % Cellular, g . kg -I Fat, g. kg-' Carotene, g . 0 Methods of regeneration of soils polluted by heavy metals have been developed to increase the capacity of cation exchange and regulation of the soil nutritional status by organic and mineral fertilizers that change the mobility of pollutants (Table 3). 8. Moreover this method decreases the migration from the soil to the plant not only of heavy metals but also of nitrates. On neutral media the toxicity of the soil decreases with the application of phosphates which form compounds of low solubility with metals.

The best developed industrial sectors are metallurgy, the metallurgical industry and the chemical industry. In 1996, forty large pollution sources emitted about 17 thousand tons of dust, which is 5% of the total emissions in Poland, and 159 thousand tons of gas. The emission levels have dropped tremendously over the last ten years (Table 3) [12]. 1g m-3). The average annual concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe) in suspended dust particles was much lower than standards. The average annual (1996) dust deposition for Krak6w voivodship was 52 g m-2 (standard 200 g m-2) [12].

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