By W. G. Lee, R. B. Allen, D. M. Tompkins (auth.), Dr. Robert B. Allen, Dr. William G. Lee (eds.)

Man’s contemporary colonization of recent Zealand has dramatically altered the resident biota and led to the creation of various alien organisms to those as soon as distant islands. In opposite, there's expanding facts of a lesser recognized export of species to different areas of the realm. This quantity provides an in-depth evaluation of the extent and fee of such invasions, and investigates what controls the luck of invaders and the results for ecosystems either on land and offshore. It offers invasion biologists all over the place with exams of present theories approximately these elements resulting in the good fortune of invaders in addition to comparing rules for figuring out the character in their affects that shape a superb foundation for the powerful administration of organic invasions worldwide.

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Molecular clock investigations do not, in general, support the concept of the New Zealand flora being ancient. One of the oldest pollen types in New Zealand is the early Cretaceous Clavatipollenites (near identical to Ascarina lucida), and this pollen type has been continuously present ever since (Mildenhall 1980). However, extant Ascarina lucida in New Zealand can be no more than 18–9 Ma old, and is in all likelihood a relatively recent arrival from the subtropics (Zhang and Renner 2003). Ancient genera such as Laurelia (Atherospermataceae) appear to have dispersed from southern South America to New Zealand ca.

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