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Atom with upper state separated from ground state by energy intervallarge compared to kT. System has no permanent magnetic moment. Origin t May be regarded as a special case of antiferromagnetism with low Neel temperature. * Antiferromagnetic Metallic K and Na (vapors} Feeble attraction Pauli or free electron paramagnetism. KNiF3 , MnSe, T i2 0 3 , ferrites KMn04 , Co (III} am mines Examples Temperature -indepen- Feeble attraction dent or Van Vleck paramagnetism Type Effect of external field on substance Positive and small (1 x 10- 3}.

Sci. S. 42:682, 1956. Kholodov, Yu. , and G. L. Verevkina, Biol. Belago 1:248, 1962 (NASA Tech. Translation F-189). 10. Becker, R. Y. Academy of Science, November 12, 1962. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. N. Mulay Materials Research Laboratory Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania INTRODUCTION Magnetism has been known since ancient times; references to lodestone (leading stone) are found in the Vedas, the most ancient religious scriptures of the Hindus, dating back to about 1000 BC, in the Platonic dialogues of Socrates, and in the ancient literature of the Chinese.

For smaller particles, the velocity will decrease as the square of the radius according to (2), so that small cell components, even if they were more highly magnetic, such as ferritin, are influenced even less; no known mobile, larger and more highly magnetic biological entity than a red blood cell is known. B. Rotational Alignment of Ellipsoids in a Uniform Field We saw above how translational redistribution is produced by a gradient field. In a uniform field, there would be no such forces, but a 27 CHAPTER 2 torque can be exerted on a magnetic particle, provided the particle is, magnetically speaking, not spherically symmetrical.

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