By Aristide H. Esser (auth.), Aristide Henri Esser (eds.)
The foreign Symposium on "The Use of house by way of Animals and Men," subsidized by way of the Animal habit Society, came about on the one hundred and thirty fifth Annual assembly of the AAAS in Dallas, Texas, on December 29-31, 1968. This ebook offers the textual content of all papers and edited discus sions, in addition to the contributions made by means of a number of people who have been not able ·to attend the Symposium. the assumption of maintaining the Symposium advanced following my presenta tion of a paper to the Animal habit Society in 1965  at the use of house through psychiatric sufferers. contributors in attendance at that ses sion, chaired by means of G. Gottlieb, shared his curiosity in my compilation of human info provided in a measurable spatial context. This plea sant event persuaded me dialogue of house may be shared as a body of reference that could open avenues of communica tion among behavioral scientists, the layout group, and the de cision makers in our society.
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Extra info for Behavior and Environment: The Use of Space by Animals and Men
In all these constructions, the substratum of the path becomes a path machine. The goal or destination is reached when contact between the subject and the object has been established, either directly or indirectly (for example, via a weapon). The goal is consummated at the moment of contact. In all, three different types of contact can be distinguished: 1. Reversible contact between object and subject. Among the inanimate objects are the location of the goal itself, light conditions, temperature conditions; among animate objects are various forms of partnership.
Particular paths emerge from the tendency to return to homes of a temporally earlier order. A geriatric phenomenon, caused by the deterioration of memory with approaching senility, emerges when patients, in their confusion, seek to return to their parent's home ANIMAL PATHS 19 which they have not seen for many years. Bird and fish migration also correspond phylogenetically to a search for earlier homes. 12]. It is also feasible that the sexual drive is marked by a tendency to return to "homes" or states (environments).
The original supposition to be investigated was very simple. Animals with an almond-shaped pupil (which in the head-low grazing position is practically horizontal) have, without much movement of the head, an almost fully circular field of vision. The idea was that the leader of a herd therefore need not be in front but could, at least to some extent, direct the movements of the herd, while grazing for instance, from a position farther back. To begin with, in order to get an idea which animal might be the leader of the herd, which animals might be more dominant and which inferior, we first had to assess the ranking order among the ten or eleven animals by other means - behavior at the water well, at the entrance to the stable, and so on - and then indeed it could later be found that an animal approaching from behind could "push" the one in front of it and get it to move on with the same ease as a leading animal could "pull" another along behind it.