By Sunil R. Lakhani, Caroline J. Finlayson, Susan A. Dilly, Mitesh Gandhi
This new version is an easy creation to pathology and the mechanisms of sickness. It places pathology into its ancient, medical and scientific context for all scientific, dental and nursing scholars and different overall healthiness professionals.
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Extra resources for Basic pathology : an introduction to the mechanisms of disease
5°C •Freezing of tissues damages endothelial cells •Sludging of cells in blood vessels causes hypoxia or infarction. On thawing, blood and plasma leak into tissues and ↓blood volume Vasculature: •Circulating blood volume reduced •Oxygen less readily given up to tissues by oxyhaemoglobin at low temperatures Heart: •Reduced cardiac output due to ↓blood volume and ↓myocardial contractility •Risk of arrhythmias •Risk of cardiac arrest Ͻ30°C •Cardiac output cannot sustain life Ͻ26°C Peripheries Muscles and nerves: •Lose excitability due to impaired membrane Naϩ pump •Severe pain on thawing reduced to a minimum due to quick restoration of blood flow.
He was wrapped in a space blanket and rushed by helicopter to hospital. His rectal (core) temperature was found to be 30°C. He was warmed with blankets and hot water bottles. He suffered a cardiac arrest but was immediately resuscitated. His mild metabolic acidosis was corrected. As he regained consciousness he began to shiver violently and his limbs became reddened and swollen. He tried to raise himself up but promptly fainted. Over the next couple of days his fingertips and nose turned black and the skin began to slough off.
G. radiation CD95 Mitochondrion Initiation Apoptosis stimulated by: Bad, Bak or Bid (activation) Bax (dimerization) Apoptosis inhibited by: Bcl-2 Bcl-XL p53 protein (generated by cell cycle DNA monitoring) Pores form in the mitochondrial membrane, electrochemical membrane gradient collapses Execution Activation of initiator and executor caspases Granzyme secretion Nucleus DNA fragments Orderly catabolism and condensation of cytoskeleton Endonuclease activation, DNA cleavage and condensation on nuclear membrane; fragmentation De De ad Macrophage Disposal Phagocytosis by macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells ad Apoptotic bodies form and bud off from cell membrane.