By Peter Chapman

During this compelling heritage of the United Fruit corporation, Financial Times author Peter Chapman weaves a dramatic story of huge enterprise, deceit, and violence, exploring the origins of arguably some of the most debatable international organizations ever, and the ways that their pioneering instance set the precedent for the institutionalized greed of today’s multinational companies.

The tale has its resource in United Fruit’s nineteenth-century beginnings within the jungles of Costa Rica. What follows is a damning exam of the company’s rules: from the selling of the banana because the first quick meals, to the company’s involvement in an invasion of Honduras, a bloodbath in Colombia, and a bloody coup in Guatemala. alongside the way in which the corporate fostered covert hyperlinks with U.S. energy agents reminiscent of Richard Nixon and CIA operative Howard Hunt, manipulated the click in new, and stoked the innovative ire of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro.

From the exploited banana republics of important the United States to the concrete jungle of recent York urban, Peter Chapman’s Bananas is a full of life and insightful cultural historical past of the coveted yellow fruit, in addition to a gripping narrative concerning the notorious upward push and fall of the United Fruit corporation.

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14 The Nasca Ceramic Tradition 2 Emergence and Evolution of the Nasca Ceramic Tradition This chapter has two related thrusts. In the first part we consider the Paracas origins of the Nasca pottery style. We also are concerned with Paracas culture as an antecedent for the development of Nasca culture, and Paracas society as this may evolve into Nasca. We emphasize that there are, in fact, several Paracas cultures, each located in a distinct part of the south coast, but interacting, and each with its own historical trajectory.

1964). Ocucaje 8, 9, and 10 are very well associated with habitation and other remains in the Ica Valley (DeLeonardis 1991, 1997; Massey 1986). Phases 1 and 2 appear to lack reality (see discussion in Burger 1988; Donnan 1992: fig. 59; García Soto and Pinilla Blenke 1995). Phase 3 corresponds 16 The Nasca Ceramic Tradition to the Chavin/Chavinoid phase represented at Karwa (see Burger 1988). Evidence for phases 4, 5, 6, and 7 is variable but extant (see Cook 1999; DeLeonardis 1991, 1997; Wallace 1962).

He also noted that the Nazca region “has always been the natural southern coastal entrance into the southern Sierras proper – connecting this section of the Coast with Ayacucho, Abancay, Cuzco and even Lake Titicaca” (Kosok 1965: 50). The veracity of Kosok’s assertion is seen in similarities between Pucara and Nasca 1 pottery (see Rowe 1971). The Ica Valley is remarkable in its own right, too. Unlike the vast majority of Peruvian coastal rivers which run east–west, the Ica River, which is 220 km long, makes a sharp turn south at its valley neck and from that point runs almost due north–south to its mouth.

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