By Paul C. Nystrom M.D. (auth.), Jeffrey D. Ho, Donald M. Dawes, Mark W. Kroll (eds.)
Atlas of carried out electric Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis offers a entire ebook just about carried out electric Weapon (CEW) wounds and signature markings created via this type of weapon. This quantity will function a really resource for all professions tasked with aiding people that experience allegedly been subjected to a CEW publicity. the quantity offers an creation to simple CEW know-how and the kinds of CEWs at present to be had. It additionally serves as a entire pictorial atlas of signature markings that CEW exposures make within the rapid and extra distant post-exposure classes. additionally, it discusses the power of forensic area of expertise examinations of the CEW itself to help within the choice of even if the alleged CEW publicity is in line with the target facts and the subjective statements. eventually, this article addresses the real and starting to be sector of factitious CEW markings that would be worthy for attention by way of investigators and litigators. Atlas of performed electric Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis presents an target atlas of proof for reference that might profit these pros who frequently needs to make diagnostic, therapy or felony judgments on those circumstances together with Emergency and Primary-Care Physicians, health workers, Forensic Pathologists, Coroners, legislations Enforcement Investigators, and Attorneys.
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Additional info for Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis
This is also why one must be careful connecting low resistance to injury. In this case, the greatest injury was to the highest resistance region. 6 Fig. 12 The energy required for necrosis decreases with current density Consider a case in which a CEW probe is embedded in a subject’s leg and the other is embedded in a leather jacket arcing to dry skin over the pectoralis major. At the initiation of the current flow, the total resistance is about 10,260 W. This is broken down as: In an arc, electrons carry charge from the cathode (−) to the anode (+) while positive ions carry charge in the opposite direction .
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1982;5(1):52–8. 2 Physics of Electrical Injury 12. Underwriters Laboratories. UL standard for electricfence controllers. In: Laboratories U, editor. UL 69, vol UL 69, 9th edn. Northbrook: Underwriters Laboratories; 2003. 13. International Electrotechnical Commission. Household and similar electrical appliances – safety – part 2 – 76: particular requirements for electric fence energizers. In: Commission IE, editor. 1. 1. 1 ed. Geneva: IEC; 2006. 14. Walcott GP, Kroll MW, Ideker RE.
The resistivity of blood varies in a direct affine relationship with the hematocrit level as seen in Fig. 8 . Hence, the blood of females is a better conductor than the blood of males. At higher frequencies (such as those seen with RF ablation), there is capacitive coupling across the red cells; the hematocrit no longer affects the resistivity and the resistivity drops to near that of physiological saline [17, 20, 21]. Even though blood is a good conductor, it is generally irrelevant to electrical injury as the large vessels are centrally located and the skeletal muscle and dermis end up carrying the current.