By Hymie Anisman, Steve Zalcman, Nola Shanks (auth.), Alan A. Boulton, Glen B. Baker, Mathew T. Martin-Iverson (eds.)
The Animal versions in Psychiatry volumes are loosely equipped by way of topic. the 1st quantity includes a variety of chapters taken with schizophrenia, psyc- ses, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesias, and different d- orders which may contain dopamine, similar to realization deficit affliction and mania. additionally integrated is a bankruptcy describing a behavioral version for activity-induced anorexia. the second one quantity offers with affective and anxiousness problems, but additionally contains chapters on matters now not simply labeled as both psychotic, affective, or anxiety-related, comparable to aggression, psychological retardation, and reminiscence issues. 4 chapters on animal types of schizophrenia or psychoses are incorporated in quantity 18 as a result of value of those problems in psychiatry. Likewise, 3 chapters within the current v- ume care for affective issues, with a fourth bankruptcy on circadian rhythms that still contributes to tools for a- mal versions in affective issues. Following the 1st 4 chapters are chapters facing types of tension and panic, chapters on aggression, one on psychological retardation, and a last bankruptcy overlaying reminiscence problems. a few of the behaviorally-based types of affective issues contain inducing rigidity in a- mals, frequently on a protracted foundation. the 1st bankruptcy by means of Anisman, Zalcman, Shanks, and Zacharko describes many of the neurochemical results which are linked to the persistent program of sensors.
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Additional info for Animal Models in Psychiatry, II
As an alternative to this position, Anisman et al. (1984) suggested that exposure to inescapable shock resulted in a perseverative response style, such that animals persisted in adopting response strategies that had previously been acquired or those innate defensive strategies that were highest in their response repertoires (Szostak and Anisman, 1985). Accordingly, animals may encounter difficulty in acquiring those response-outcome associations incompatible with response styles to which they are predisposed.
For instance, Glazer and Weiss (1976a,b) reported that escape deficits were apparent in rats tested soon after briefduration, high-intensity shock but were absent 24 h later. In contrast, long-duration, moderate-intensity shock provoked long-term shuttle deficits, but curiously no such disturbance was evident soon after the inescapable shock session, Likewise, in mice, Anisman et al. (1978) reported that escape deficits became more pronounced over the X-h period following exposure to moderate severity shock It was suggested (Glazer and Weiss 1976a,b) that two forms of the escape interference may have existed.
9 Fig. 4. Mean (+SEM) rate of responding for intracranial self-stimulation from the medial forebrain bundle, nucleus accumbens, or substantia nigra in mice that had been ex osed to escapable shock (O), yoked inescapable shock (0), or no shock (6 . Baseline rates represent rate of responding on the day prior to shock treatment. , 1983a). levels, without affecting nigrostriatal DA activity. Thus, it was provisionally suggested that stressors influenced motivational processes involving DA mechanisms.