By World Health Organization

This ebook offers revised instruction values for the 4 most typical air pollution - particulate subject, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - in line with a up to date evaluate of the amassed clinical facts. the reason for collection of each one instruction worth is supported via a synthesis of data rising from study at the overall healthiness results of every pollutant. therefore, those instructions now additionally observe globally. they are often learn along with Air caliber instructions for Europe, second version, that's nonetheless the authority on guide values for all different air pollution.

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In some regions, such as Europe, international harmonization both of monitoring and of data exchange takes place. However, there is currently no such data exchange system covering other regions. Thus the information presented later in this chapter is based on selected data only, published independently and not in a harmonized way. The data illustrate patterns and trends in pollution but cannot be considered to provide a comprehensive global overview of air quality. Measurement methods, and quality assurance and quality control Instruments for measuring air pollutants may vary greatly in complexity and price, from the simplest passive sampler to the most advanced and expensive automatic remote monitoring system based on light absorption spectroscopy of various kinds.

Fig. 5 shows a map of emissions of nitrogen oxides from road transport in London in 1999. The influence of road traffic is clearly seen, first in terms of a substantial gradient in emissions between the heavily trafficked central areas and the less trafficked suburban regions of the city, and second through the clear delineation of major road links. The most obvious one is the M25 motorway, which takes an orbital route around the city and hence appears to provide a boundary to the figure. Major arterial routes are also visible on the map, despite the fact that they cover only a small proportion of the 1 × 1-km grid squares into which the map is resolved.

The reactions are relatively slow but are important because of the large availability of the long-lived methane and carbon monoxide in the remote atmosphere. In more polluted atmospheres, as typified by Los Angeles but applying to many parts of the world, there is an abundance of more reactive hydrocarbons arising from anthropogenic emissions. In the presence of high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and bright sunshine, high ozone concentrations can form relatively rapidly, leading to substantial pollution.

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