By W.-E Kalisch, K. Hägele (auth.), Seppo Lakovaara (eds.)

In 1906 citadel, wood worker, Clarke, Mast, and Barrows released a paper entitled "The results of inbreeding, cross-breeding, and choice upon the fertility and variability of Drosophila." this text, fifty five pages lengthy and released within the court cases of the Amer­ ican Academy, defined experiments played with Drosophila ampe­ lophila Lov, "a small dipterous insect identified lower than a number of renowned names reminiscent of the little fruit fly, pomace fly, vinegar fly, wine fly, and pickled fruit fly." This examine, which was once started in 1901 and released in 1906, was once the 1st released experimental learn utilizing Drosophila, consequently referred to as Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. after all, Drosophila was once recognized ahead of the experiments of Cas­ tles's staff. The small flies swarming round grapes and wine pots have definitely been often called lengthy as wine has been produced. the consideration of what used to be the 1st identified misclassification of the fruit flies is going to Fabricius who named them Musca funebris in 1787. It used to be the Swedish dipterist, C.F. Fallen, who in 1823 replaced the identify of ~ funebris to Drosophila funebris which was once heralding the start of the genus Drosophila. Present-day Drosophila learn was once all started simply eighty years in the past and primary released basically seventy five years in the past. although the background of Drosophila learn is brief, the effect and quantity of analysis on Drosophila has been large over the last decades.

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PODOPLELOVA Progeny count in the cross female y/XY;C(2L),dp;C(2R),px x male XY,B;C(2L),+;C(2R),+ Segregation of Segregation of autosomal compounds XIS Disjunction Disjunction Non-disjunction dp px dp;px female 1642 male 2450 2355 2410 23 18 7 28 7 24 female male Table 3. Non-disjunction +;+ 6 21 61 58 Progeny count in the cross female In(1) dl-49 + BM1 /xy; C(2L),dp;C(2R),px x male XY,B;C(2L),+C(2R),+ Segregation of Segregation of autosomal compounds XIS Disjunction Disjunction dp px dp;px 1006 1420 121 23 895 993 25 64 female 42 92 3 453 226 male 37 111 female male Non-disjunction Non-disjunction +;+ 2 NONHOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME PAIRING 51 Spontaneous interchanges between the XIS and autosomal compounds were investigated in females of two genotypes, those of the first genotype had an XY compound, while those of the second genotype had the XY compound and the inversion.

The interchange data indicate that this tendency became a rule, when two nonhomologues not only paired, but also interchanged. Regular disjunction of nonhomologues, when their partners are involved in interchange, has been observed in X-rayed Drosophila oocytes (Parker and Williamson, 1916). ) Fig. 5. Formation of X-XY-C(2L) trivalent in meiotic prophase. The heterochromatic regions of the X and the XY are asynaptic. Crossing-over takes place in the euchromatic regions of X's and C(2L) compound.

1969, Ultrastucture of the polytene chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster with special reference to electron microscopic mapping of the chromosome 3R, Ann. Acad. Sci. , 1967, The squash technique in the electron microscopic studies on the structure of polytene chromosomes, J. Ultrastr. , 20:302. , 1979, Electron microscopic localization and ultrastructure of certain gene loci in the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, in: "Specific Eukaryotic Genes," A. Benzon Symp. 13, J. Engberg, H.

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