By G.A. Somorjai, M.A. van Hove
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Additional info for Adsorbed Monolayers on Solid Surfaces
Thus CO was discovered to have two different adsorption states, labelled a and/3, on a W substrate. For both CO and H2 on Pt(111) one state is found, while the same adsorbates on a stepped Pt(111) substrate exhibit two states: the new state is presumably to be attributed to adsorption at the steps. One often finds that with rising coverage first one state (site) is populated and then a second state (site) begins filling up. The positions and relative heights of the desorption peaks as a function of initial coverage can be analyzed with appropriate models: one obtains in this way good estimates for the binding energies (heats of adsorption).
VI). 3 SPI (Surface Penning Ionization) A metastable helium atom incident (with thermal kinetic energy) onto a surface allows a surface electron to tunnel to the unoccupied low helium level, enabling the excited helium electron to be emitted and detected 24). This occurs with energy and angular distributions characteristic of the electronic structure and therefore geometry of the surface, in a way similar to photoemission (see the heading: UPS and XPS). Whereas in photoemission the excitation occurs via a dipolar photon-electron interaction, in SPI it is an IF - r-~l-1 electron-electron interaction that takes place, so that the selection rules are different.
In LEIS 17a) high surface specificity is obtained because the very large cross sections for ion scattering ensures scattering off the outermost atomic layer only. Mutual shadowing of surface atoms is exploited to investigate their mutual positions. 5 A. This does allow gross (but important) observations such as whether adsorbed atoms lie tucked away between substrate atoms [for example, in the channels of fcc(110) surfaces] or instead are situated in more exposed positions [for example, on the ridges of fcc(1 I0) surfaces].