By Duane W., Palmer H. H.

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Thus, in summary, the solar radiation input is disposed of in the following manner: Three basic features of the short-wave radiation portion of the balance emerge. First, 28% of the E-A input is reflected to Space and does not participate further in the E-A system energy balance. Secondly, only 25% of the input is absorbed by the Atmosphere. Thus, as noted earlier, the Atmosphere is semi-transparent to short-wave radiation and consequently is not greatly heated by it. Thirdly, almost one-half (47%) of the input is absorbed at the Earth’s surface.

C. (49°N) for a moist, bare soil, and (b) temperatures at the surface, in the air at a height of 1·2 m and in the soil at a depth of 0·2 m (after Novak and Black, 1985). The following table gives the energy totals for the day (MJm-2day-1). Energy and mass exchanges 25 surface (or system) are positive. 17 are positive when they represent losses of heat for the surface (or system), and negative when they are gains. On the left-hand side Q* is positive as a gain and negative when a loss. When both sides of the equation are positive it describes how the available radiative surplus is partitioned into sub-surface and atmospheric energy sinks; and this is usually the situation by day.

At night on the other hand the situation is reversed. The nocturnal Q* loss is most effectively replenished by conduction upwards from the soil, and the convective contribution is least effective from QE. The essential difference between the two convective situations is due to the fact that by day free convection is enhanced, but by night it is damped by the atmospheric temperature stratification (p. 51). The size of QG is not greatly different between day and night. 10). In summer the daytime storage slightly exceeds the nocturnal output and the soil gradually warms.

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