By Diana Preston
In six weeks in the course of April and should 1915, as global conflict I escalated, Germany perpetually altered the best way struggle will be fought. On April 22, at Ypres, German canisters spewed poison gasoline at French and Canadian squaddies of their trenches; on may well 7, the German submarine U-20, unexpectedly, torpedoed the passenger liner Lusitania, killing 1,198 civilians; and on may perhaps 31, a German Zeppelin all started the 1st aerial bombardment of London and its population. each one of those activities violated ideas of warfare rigorously agreed on the Hague Conventions of 1898 and 1907. even though Germany's makes an attempt to speedy win the battle failed, the mental harm because of those assaults a long way outweighed the casualties. The period of guns of mass destruction had dawned.
While every one of those momentous occasions has been chronicled in histories of the warfare, celebrated historian Diana Preston hyperlinks them for the 1st time, revealing the dramatic tales at the back of every one during the eyes of these who have been there, no matter if making the selections or experiencing their impression. She locations the assaults within the context of the centuries-old debate over what constitutes "just war," and indicates how, of their aftermath, the opposite opponents felt the need to advance severe guns in their personal. In our present time of terror, while guns of mass destruction-imagined or real-are once more vilified, the tale in their delivery is of serious relevance.
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Additional resources for A Higher Form of Killing: Six Weeks in World War I That Forever Changed the Nature of Warfare
56 XXXII Introduction classical antiquity, the direct ancestor of our own, can hardly suffer a complete neglect. Scholars cannot give up the noble conception of the study of the ancient world as a whole. They must guard perpetually against the danger of dryness, both the dryness that comes from an excessive concentration on technique and the dryness that comes from the adoption of too narrowly historical a standpoint. They do not maintain that the classics offer an ideal pattern for imitation. Nor indeed can the classicists of the Renaissance or the age of Goethe justly be reproached with this; the idea of imitation of an ideal pattern hardly suffices to explain the relation of a Michelangelo or of a Goethe to the ancient artists from whom they drew inspiration.
2 2 Tryphon : Sandys i, 1 42f. 23 Herodian: Sandys i 3 1 4. The first nineteen books of his 'general prosody' dealt with accentuation in general, the twentieth with quantities and breathings and the last with enclitics, etc. See below, p. I 44. D. ) : Sandys i 323; see Chadwick, 18 6 History of Classical Scholarship and so the old system ground on, becoming more and more uninspired, as is amply proved by the writings of Georgius Choeroboscus,25 the most influential teacher of the sixth century.
645) ; Boniface (c. 67 5-754) ; see SSZ 77f. 1 4 Charlemagne was crowned at Aachen in 800, see SS2 80( 7 \ Alcuin (c. ; P. Godman's edition of his poems (forthcoming) . History of Classical Scholarship 17 manuscripts have survived, and where we only possess later copies these can usually be traced to a Carolingian archetype and a Frankish monastery. ' In discussing the Rule of St Benedict Ludwig Traube76 has given a classic demonstration of how, in its struggle with lazy adherence to the textus receptus on the one hand and would-be elegant modernisation on the other, the conscious effort to get back to the authentic text finally lost the day.